Types of Physical Filtration

Types of physical filtration

Filtration is usually a simple mechanical process that is considered the most successful and effective way to purify water and remove impurities and wastes from water such as bacteria, algae, sediment, unpleasant odors, viruses, parasites, organic matter, and harmful metals such as chromium and copper. Filtration is also used to separate salt from water.

The filtration process actually includes physical and chemical adsorption/sorption mechanisms, compaction, sedimentation, interception, diffusion, and inertial compaction. This filtration prepares water for use for drinking or for boiling and cooling, so that it is fit for human consumption with a better taste than unfiltered water, and is suitable for use in medical, industrial and chemical applications.

Types of physical filtration

From a physical point of view, filtration can be defined as the removal of water (water) from impurities and small solid particles through different types of filtration, including the following:

First, centrifugal filtration

Filtration often uses sieving technology to remove pollutants or unwanted substances with the help of gravity. This can be achieved through physical barriers such as media, membranes, or filters.

A centrifuge uses centrifugal force to separate the desired compounds and particles based on their molecular weight, with the centrifuge moving the denser compounds out of the machine. During this type of filtration process, water is rotated at a very high speed, and because of this speed and horizontal water circulation, the less dense materials are separated from the denser materials, and as a result, pure water is obtained free of any impurities.

Second: gravity filtration

Gravity filtration is done by pouring water from a high point so that the materials with the largest mass are attracted to the bottom by gravity. During this process, a special filter paper is placed in a glass funnel, then solid particles that are difficult to dissolve in the water are captured.

Through gravity, only water passes through the filter paper, and sometimes the filter paper is replaced by other materials such as filter funnels, grooved filters, and filter tubes.

Third: cold filtration

In cold filtration, water is subjected to very low temperatures, and sometimes an ice bath is used, when some solids such as fatty acids are suspended in the cold mixture and are easy to dispose of, and this process makes the water filter more easily and faster.

Fourth: hot filtration

In contrast to the cold filtration process, the water in hot filtration is subjected to very high temperatures, and when the crystalline compound of the substance is heated, the crystalline compound becomes a liquid that facilitates the removal of impurities from it. Specialists and experts in this field recommend the use of a filter device with a very high temperature so that the impurities do not dissolve before or with the crystalline material.

Fifth: multi-layer filtration

In the multi-layer filtration process, water (water) is subjected to passing through layers composed of several materials, such as coal, gravel or sand, so that each layer consists of particles of different sizes. During the multi-layer filtration process, polluted water (water) is poured into a layered filter, and each layer attracts the solid particles that are attached to it, then only pure water comes out through these layers.

Sixth: vacuum filtration

In the vacuum filtration process, polluted water (water) is entered into a pump containing two funnels of different sizes, filter papers and passages with many holes, and the pump discharges liquids by drawing them through these passages and filters to obtain pure water (water) as a final product. This method is often used when the particles of the solid to be filtered are small in size.


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